On December 17, 2010, via the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, Congress amended the Internal Revenue Code to allow portability of the applicable exclusion amount between spouses. On June 15, 2012, the IRS released temporary regulations that provide long awaited guidance on the applicable requirements for electing such and on the applicable rules for the surviving spouse's use of the deceased spousal unused exclusion (DSUE) amount.
This Website Is For Financial Professionals Only
Following is a summary of select points covered in the regulations.
Making the Portability Election
· An executor electing portability is required to make that election on a timely-filed estate tax return. The last return filed by the due date of the return, including extensions actually granted, will supersede any previously-filed return. Thus, an executor may supersede a previously-filed portability election on a subsequent timely-filed estate tax return if the executor satisfies the requirement in the regulations. A portability election is irrevocable once the due date (as extended) of the return has passed.
· Every estate electing portability, regardless of estate size, must file a Form 706 within 9 months of death (or by extended due date).
· The estate of a decedent (survived by a spouse) makes the portability election by timely filing a complete and properly-prepared estate tax return for the decedent's estate. Executors of estates that are not otherwise required to file an estate tax return (because of the size of the estate) do not have to report the value of certain property that qualifies for the marital or charitable deduction. If an executor chooses to make use of this special rule in filing an estate tax return, the executor must estimate the total value of the gross estate (including the values of the property that do not have to be reported on the estate tax return under this provision), based on a determination made in good faith and with due diligence regarding the value of all of the assets includible in the gross estate. The instructions issued with respect to the estate tax return will provide ranges of dollar values, and the executor must identify on the estate tax return the particular range within which falls the executor's best estimate of the total gross estate. An amount corresponding to this range will be included on line 1, part 2, of the estate tax return, along with an indication of whether the line 1 total includes an estimate under this special rule. By signing the return, the executor is certifying, under penalties of perjury, that the estimate falls within the identified range of values to the best of the executor's knowledge and belief.
· If the executor of the estate of a decedent with a surviving spouse does not wish to make the portability election, the executor must make an affirmative statement on the estate tax return signifying the decision to have the portability election not apply. If no estate tax return is required for that decedent's estate, not filing a timely return will be considered to be an affirmative statement signifying the decision not to make a portability election.
· An appointed executor, not the surviving spouse, may file an estate tax return to elect portability or to opt to have the portability election not apply. If there is no appointed executor, any person in actual or constructive possession of any property of the decedent may file the estate tax return to elect into or out of portability.
Computing the DSUE Amount
· An executor must include a computation of the DSUE amount on the estate tax return to allow portability of the decedent's DSUE amount. A complete and properly-prepared return contains the information required to compute a decedent's DSUE amount. Once the IRS revises the prescribed form for the estate tax return expressly to include the computation of the DSUE amount, executors that previously filed an estate tax return pursuant to the transitional rule will not be required to file a supplemental estate tax return using the revised form.
· The temporary regulations confirm that the term “basic exclusion amount” referred to in section 2010(c)(4)(A) means the basic exclusion amount in effect in the year of the death of the decedent whose DSUE amount is being computed. The preamble to the regulations state that the “basic exclusion amount” is properly interpreted to mean the applicable exclusion amount.
· Amounts on which gift taxes were paid by a decedent are excluded from adjusted taxable gifts for the purpose of computing that decedent's DSUE amount.
Use of the DSUE Amount by the Surviving Spouse
· If the decedent is the last deceased spouse of the surviving spouse on the date of a transfer by the surviving spouse that is subject to gift or estate tax, the surviving spouse, or the estate of the surviving spouse, of that decedent may take into account that decedent's DSUE amount in determining the applicable exclusion amount of the surviving spouse when computing the surviving spouse's gift or estate tax liability on that transfer. This rule applies only if the decedent's executor elected portability.
· A portability election made by the executor of a decedent's estate is effective as of the date of the decedent's death. Thus, the DSUE amount of a decedent survived by a spouse may be included in determining the applicable exclusion amount of the surviving spouse, subject to any applicable limitations, with respect to all transfers occurring after the death of the decedent, if the executor of the decedent's estate makes a portability election and the election is not superseded by the executor of the decedent's estate before the due date of the return, including extensions.
· The term “last deceased spouse” means the most recently deceased individual who was married to the surviving spouse at that individual's death, except that an individual dying before calendar year 2011 cannot be considered the last deceased spouse of such surviving spouse.
· Remarriage alone does not affect who will be considered the last deceased spouse and does not prevent the surviving spouse from including in the surviving spouse's applicable exclusion amount the DSUE amount of the deceased spouse who most recently preceded the surviving spouse in death.
· The identity of the last deceased spouse of the surviving spouse for purposes of portability is not affected by whether the estate of the last deceased spouse elects portability of the deceased spouse's DSUE amount or whether the last deceased spouse has any DSUE amount available.
· The temporary regulations create an ordering rule by providing that, when a surviving spouse makes a taxable gift, the DSUE amount of the decedent who is the last deceased spouse of such surviving spouse will be considered to apply against the amount of the surviving spouse's taxable gifts for that calendar year before the surviving spouse's own basic exclusion amount will apply.
· A spouse who has survived multiple spouses may use each last deceased spouse's DSUE amount before the death of that spouse's next spouse, and thereby may apply the DSUE amount of multiple deceased spouses in succession. However, this does not permit the surviving spouse to use the sum of the DSUE amounts of those deceased spouses at one time, and a surviving spouse may not use the remaining DSUE amount of a prior deceased spouse following the death of a subsequent spouse.
Authority to Examine Returns of Deceased Spouses
· In determining the allowable DSUE amount, the IRS may examine any one or more returns of each deceased spouse of the surviving spouse whose executor elected portability. Upon examination, the IRS may adjust or eliminate the DSUE amount reported on a return; however, the IRS may make an assessment of additional tax with respect to the deceased spouse's return only within the period of limitations under IRC Sec. 6501.
Availability of DSUE amount for estates of nonresidents who are not citizens.
· The estate of a nonresident surviving spouse who is not a citizen of the United States at the time of such surviving spouse's death cannot utilize portability except to the extent allowed under any applicable treaty obligation of the United States.